Subject Area: Women’s Health Outcomes

This section of the report card evaluates states based on their performance on key measures of women’s health outcomes, including data on incidence of specific health conditions, life expectancy, maternal and infant mortality rates, and mortality rates by specific condition. Data on race and ethnicity are included where available.

This section includes figures on women’s health status, with data points on the incidence of a range of health issues and conditions including asthma, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, sexually transmitted infections, disability limitations, and mental health from sources including the Centers for Disease Control and the Kaiser Family Foundation. It also includes a range of data points on women’s health outcomes including life expectancy, overall mortality rates by race/ethnicity, mortality by key conditions (including cancer, heart disease, and diabetes), maternal mortality, and infant mortality, drawn from the Centers for Disease Control’s WONDER database, the CDC’s National Vital Statistics Reports, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the March of Dimes Peristats website.

OutcomesGrades

KEY FINDINGS ON WOMEN’S HEALTH OUTCOMES

Best and Worst Outcomes Ranking

The states with the best rankings for women’s health outcomes are Minnesota (#1), North Dakota (#2), Connecticut (#3), Hawaii (#4), and Massachusetts (#5). The states with the worst rankings for women’s health outcomes are Alabama (#50), Mississippi (#49), West Virginia (#48), Kentucky (#47), and Oklahoma (#46).

States Rejecting Medicaid Expansion

As with coverage and access, many states that have so far rejected Medicaid expansion received poor or failing grades. Five of the states that have rejected Medicaid expansion received an F grade, eight more received a D, and three more received a C. All told, 16 of the 21 states rejecting Medicaid expansion as of September 2014 received a C-level grade or worse for women’s health outcomes.4

Racial Disparities in Women’s Health Outcomes

The health outcomes data for women broken down by race/ethnicity highlights persistent racial disparities in women’s health outcomes. An analysis of the racial disparity ratios calculated in this section of the report card finds the following results for each group:

Black Women

Asthma: In 19 of the 37 states with reported data for black women, the asthma rate for black women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in nine states, the asthma rate for black women was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.28 to 1.

Hypertension: In all 38 states with reported data for black women, the hypertension rate for black women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 13 states, it was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.93 to 1.

Diabetes: In 31 of the 37 states with reported data for black women, the diabetes rate for black women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 16 states, it was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.04 to 1.

Poor mental health: In 12 of the 37 states with reported data for black women, the percentage of black women reporting poor mental health was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.55 to 1.

Infant mortality: In all of the 38 states with reported data for black women, the infant mortality rate for black women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 33 states, it was at least 50 percent higher; and in seven states, it was at least twice as high. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.51 to 1.

Latina Women

Asthma: In 14 states, the asthma rate for Latina women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in six states, the asthma rate for Latina women was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.92 to 1.

Hypertension: In five states, the hypertension rate for Latina women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.38 to 1.

Diabetes: In 28 states, the diabetes rate for Latina women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 19 states, it was at least 50 percent higher; and in three states, it was at least twice as high. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.20 to 1.

Poor mental health: In 13 states, the percentage of Latina women reporting poor mental health was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in three states, it was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.73 to 1.

Infant mortality: In four of the 42 states with reported data for Latinas, the infant mortality rate for Latina women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.39 to 1.

Asian/Pacific Islander Women

Diabetes: In five of the 25 states with reported data, the diabetes rate for Asian/Pacific Islander women was at least 50 percent higher than for women overall; in three states, it was at least twice as high. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.63 to 1.

Infant Mortality: In two of the 29 states with reported data, the infant mortality rate for Asian/Pacific Islander women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.56 to 1.

American Indian/Alaska Native Women

Asthma: In 13 of the 22 states with reported data for Native women, the asthma rate for Native women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 10 states, the asthma rate for Native women was at least 50 percent higher; and in seven states, it was at least twice as high. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.62 to 1.

Hypertension: In 10 of the 25 states with reported data for Native women, the hypertension rate for Native women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 1.51 to 1.

Diabetes: In 18 of the 22 states with reported data for Native women, the diabetes rate for Native women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in 16 states, it was at least 50 percent higher; and in six states, it was at least twice as high. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.82 to 1.

Poor mental health: In 13 of the 22 states with reported data for Native women, the percentage of Native women reporting poor mental health was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in six states, it was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.01 to 1.

Infant mortality: In 14 of the 15 states with reported data for Native women, the infant mortality rate for Native women was at least 20 percent higher than for women overall; in eight states, it was at least 50 percent higher. States’ racial disparity ratios ranged as high as 2.62 to 1.


OutcomesChart1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at:
http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart2

RDR – Racial Disparity Ratio = ratio for selected group compared to all women in the state.
For example, a racial disparity ratio of 1.5 means the percentage/rate for the selected group is 1.5 times the benchmark percentage/rate for all women in the state.

Source: AJS calculations based on  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart3

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at:
http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart4

RDR – Racial Disparity Ratio = ratio for selected group compared to all women in the state.
For example, a racial disparity ratio of 1.5 means the percentage/rate for the selected group is 1.5 times the benchmark percentage/rate for all women in the state.

Source: AJS calculations based on  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at:
http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart6

RDR – Racial Disparity Ratio = ratio for selected group compared to all women in the state.
For example, a racial disparity ratio of 1.5 means the percentage/rate for the selected group is 1.5 times the benchmark percentage/rate for all women in the state.

Source: AJS calculations based on  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart7

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at:
http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart8

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), NCHHSTP Atlas, available at:
http://gis.cdc.gov/GRASP/NCHHSTPAtlas/main.html


OutcomesChart9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart10

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart11

RDR – Racial Disparity Ratio = ratio for selected group compared to all women in the state.
For example, a racial disparity ratio of 1.5 means the percentage/rate for the selected group is 1.5 times the benchmark percentage/rate for all women in the state.

Source: AJS calculations based on  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), available at: http://www.healthstatus2020.com/OwhExplore/select_variables.aspx


OutcomesChart12

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, Measure of America calculations using mortality counts from the CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, available at: http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/life-expectancy-by-gender/


OutcomesChart13

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Vital Statistics
System, U.S. Decennial Life Tables, 1999-2001: State Life Tables, available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/mortality/lewk4.htm


OutcomesChart14

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, CDC WONDER Online Database, “Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2010,” released 2012, available at: http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/death-rate-by-gender/http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/cancer-death-rate-by-gender/, http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/heart-disease-death-rate-by-gender/, http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/diabetes-death-rate-by-gender/


OutcomesChart15

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CDC WONDER Online Database, “Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2011,” available at: http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html


OutcomesChart16

Source: March of Dimes Peristats website, based on National Center for Health Statistics final mortality and natality data, available at:
http://www.marchofdimes.org/peristats


OutcomesChart17

Source: Mathews, T.J., M.S. and Marian F. MacDorman, Ph.D., “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set,” CDC National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 62, No. 8, p. 16, December 18, 2013, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_08.pdf


OutcomesChart18

RDR – Racial Disparity Ratio = ratio for selected group compared to all women in the state.
For example, a racial disparity ratio of 1.5 means the percentage/rate for the selected group is 1.5 times the benchmark percentage/rate for all women in the state.

Source: AJS calculations based on rates reported by Mathews, T.J., M.S. and Marian F. MacDorman, Ph.D., “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set,” CDC National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 62, No. 8, p. 16, December 18, 2013, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_08.pdf


Download a PDF version of the report:

WomensHealth-Cover

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